Preprint version. Published in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Volume 94, Issue 5, October 1, 2010, pages e115-e122.
This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Lutein exposure, in ovo or in the diet, reduces parameters of inflammation in the liver and spleen laying-type chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) , L. S. Meriwether; B. D. Humphrey; D. G. Peterson; K. C. Klasing; E. A. Koutsos, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 94:5, Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Blackwell.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.00990.x.
These trials examined whether the demonstrated effects of embryonic and dietary carotenoid exposure on the inflammatory immune response in fast growing chickens also occur in slow growing chickens. The systemic and local inflammatory responses of chicks were examined in two experiments with two in ovo lutein levels (C+, carotenoid replete; or C−, carotenoid-deplete), two dietary lutein levels (0 or 40 mg lutein/kg diet), and two inflammatory challenges [no exposure or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-vaccinated]. At 24 h after LPS vaccination, spleen weight was not affected by diet or in ovo lutein, but liver weight increased from C+ eggs (p < 0.01), and in LPS-vaccinated chicks fed 0 mg lutein (p < 0.05), but not in chicks fed 40 mg lutein. Plasma carotenoids and liver carotenoids were reduced post-LPS (p < 0.05). Splenic IL-6 mRNA abundance was the greatest post-LPS in C− chicks fed 40 mg lutein vs. C+ chicks fed 40 mg lutein (p < 0.05). Hepatic IL-6, iNOS and TGFβ and splenic iNOS and TGFβ were not affected by in ovo or dietary lutein. The systemic and local inflammatory results are similar to those observed in fast growing chickens, and support that lutein-depleted birds have greater inflammatory responses.