Postprint version. Published in Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Volume 69, August 1, 2014, pages 1-28.
At the time of publication, author G. Doig was not yet affiliated with Cal Poly.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2014.02.002.
A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime – where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent – as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.