This study focuses on the development of a two dimensional (2D) simplified numerical framework of rigid wall-flexible diaphragm (RWFD) structures that can be used to validate seismic design approaches. This type of low-rise industrial buildings, which is widely used in North America, incorporates rigid in-plane concrete or masonry walls and flexible in-plane wood, steel or “hybrid” roof diaphragms. The numerical modeling is detailed enough to capture the nonlinear seismic response of RWFD buildings, but simplified enough to efficiently conduct a large number of nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. The 2D numerical modeling framework is based on a three step sub-structuring approach including: (1) a hysteretic response database for diaphragm connectors, (2) a 2D inelastic roof diaphragm model incorporating hysteretic connector response and (3) a simplified 2D building model incorporating hysteretic diaphragm model response. The diaphragm connector database (step 1) was developed for both wood and steel deck connectors using cyclic test data available in the literature. Two well-known hysteretic models (Wayne-Stewart and CUREE-SAWS) were used for estimating/fitting hysteretic parameters of each connector type. The analytical model of the inelastic roof diaphragm (step 2) was generated to account for the elastic shear deformation of deck panels, elastic flexural deformations of chord members as well as inelastic deformations of deck-to-frame connectors (from the connector database-step 1). This model includes monotonic and cyclic analysis capabilities. The last step of the proposed analytical framework is a simplified two dimensional model of a RWFD building developed in RUAUMOKO2D to account for the inelastic response of roof diaphragms (based on the analytical roof diaphragm model-step 2) and the out-of-plane walls as well as second order (P-Δ) effects. Both the proposed analytical model of the roof diaphragm and the proposed simplified building model were validated with experimental and analytical studies available in the literature. Furthermore, a sensitivity study was conducted to examine the effect of: (i) analysis time step, (ii) different base fixity of the out-of-plane walls, (iii) P-Δ effects, (iv) inherent viscous damping and (v) direction of shaking on the collapse assessment of RWFD structures.


Architectural Engineering



URL: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/aen_fac/78